Compression Depression

sadmusic

“Research finds MP3s make your music sound more depressing” says the latest bit of breathless reportage to come floating down the audio/science news feeds. In this new ‘post fact’ age, I guess I’m no longer supposed to be surprised by the paucity of actual evidence offered up in support of any particular assertion put forward as scientific ‘research’ but in the interests of actual reality, let’s focus the Hummadruz lens on this affair.

As usual, nearly every mention of this that I saw completely uncritically regurgitated copy that looked like it came from one source. I couldn’t narrow it down to a first instance, but the coverage from NME was typical:

New research has found that listening to music in low-quality digital formats can dampened its emotional impact.

According to a study by the Audio Engineering Library, MP3s can have a distinct effect on the “timbral and emotional characteristics” of the instruments involved.

Researchers compared responses to compressed and uncompressed music over ten emotional categories at several bit rates.

It’s always instructive to find out who is responsible for research, so my obvious first action when I read the above quote was to click on that link to the ‘Audio Engineering Library’ and find out who those dudes actually are. Puzzlingly, the link just leads to the abstract of the actual paper, which makes no mention of that organisation.

In fact, searching the web for the ‘Audio Engineering Library’ reveals that there is no such entity, and, instructively, pretty much every search result leads to some variation or other of the story about ‘How compression makes your music depressing’. It’s a veritable self-referential maelstrom. Audio Engineering Library? Someone just made that shit up.*

If ever there was an indication that we are about to enter the land of hogwash and horsepiss, here we have it.

Still, we have the paper right? Published on Researchgate – the science industry equivalent of LinkedIn – to be sure, but proper science will out!

The first thing we should note is that this research is a one-off  publication, on an online site, of a conference presentation. The research it entails has neither been replicated, nor peer-reviewed. This is, in scientific terms, not much more than a bunch of opinions.

We don’t have to delve far into the paper to find its true worth:

3.2 ListeningTest

We used eight sustained instrument sounds: bassoon (bs), clarinet (cl), flute (fl), horn (hn), oboe (ob), saxophone (sx), trumpet (tp), and violin (vn).

Whoa there cowboy! I was told by NME that the compression made my music more depressing. You do know what music is, don’t you NME? What it is not, is a bunch of fixed-note sustained instrument noises taken entirely out of musical context.

In addition to that complete clanger, there is no mention anywhere in the paper about how many subjects were used in these tests, nor anything about how they were conducted – just a lot of technical hocus-pocus about compression methods, and some graphs that are totally meaningless given what we just read. Wading further through this procedural mess, we find so much experimenter subjectivity stirred into the mix that the study is rendered all but useless as a piece of viable science.

To sum up, an unpublished, un peer-reviewed paper, conducted by a fictional institution,  tells us that in an un-replicated study, an unspecified number of listeners (keeping in mind that could be as few as two) were played compressed timbral instrumental single tones (not music) and asked to subjectively choose – from a list pre-determined by the researchers – how those noises made them feel.

Would you conclude that from there you could get to “Research finds MP3s make your music sound more depressing”?

No, me neither.


*Addendum: It seems they probably mean the AES (Audio Engineering Society) Library, where the paper is also archived. So let’s chalk that one up to sloppy journalism, rather than wilful deception. On the AES site, the presentation appears under its actual title The Effects of MP3 Compression on Perceived Emotional Characteristics in Musical Instruments [my emphasis].

Notice that this doesn’t make any claims about music, per se, and is a much more accurate appraisal of what the study was actually looking at (see comments below for further clarification).

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Clarity

dog

In recent times a number of devices have appeared on the market that promise to deliver a better musical experience than the one you usually receive from your portable digital music player of choice. One such gadget was brought to my attention yesterday – it goes by the name of the Chord Mojo.

“Simply connect Mojo to your iPhone, Android phone, PC, or Mac,” says the site, then “plug in your headphones and you can experience crystal clear audio the way you would hear it in the recording studio.”

So what’s the deal? Can this £300 (US$430) box really deliver on that promise?

Well, maybe. Like so many things in the shadowy world of audio snake oil, the claim comes with some caveats which the manufacturers assiduously avoid bringing to a potential customer’s attention.

The Mojo is what is called in the business a DAC, or Digital to Analog Converter. As you are most likely aware, the music on your portable music device is stored as digital bits. Those bits need to be converted into analog sound waves for them to be heard by your ears. Your musicpod obviously already does this – otherwise you wouldn’t be able to hear anything – but gadgets like the Chord Mojo claim to be able to do it better. To achieve this marvellous feat, the digital-to-analog converter and headphone amplifier circuit on the musicpod is bypassed altogether, and the (bulkier than an iPhone) Mojo plugs into the USB or Lightning socket on your device. You then plug your headphones into the  Mojo, which does the heavy lifting of converting digital bits into analog audio and then amplifying it (in a presumably more-sophisticated way than the DAC in your iPod).

But does it do what is claimed on the box? Probably, in a technical sense, yes. The real deception with products like this is elsewhere, so we have do a little sifting to find where the truth actually lies. Take that sentence from the website: “…crystal clear audio the way you would hear it in the recording studio.” That’s an amazing pledge – is that really what you could expect if you just plugged it into your iDevice straight off the shelf?

I doubt it. The truth is that this promise is based on something that the makers of the Mojo neglect to mention: it all depends on how your music files are made. If, like the great majority of people, your files are compressed into mp3 or AAC file formats, it’s simply a lie. No DAC, no matter how good, is going to make your mp3s sound like ‘audio the way you would hear it in a recording studio’. It’s even a highly contentious claim, in fact, to say that it would necessarily make your compressed music sound any better than the DAC already present in your music player does.

Now, if you happen to carry all your music around uncompressed (and I know absolutely no-one who does that – not me, nor any of my very experienced audio professional friends), you might benefit from a better DAC than the one in your iPod. Might. Because this would also depend on other factors, one of those being that a pair of Sony ear buds (like the ones in the promotional photo on the Chord Mojo site) would not aid you in this pursuit. In other words, a great deal depends on the quality of the headphones you’re using; tiny ear buds, no matter how good, will not deliver you ‘audio the way you would hear it in a recording studio’.

What the Chord Mojo site – and indeed, most other sites selling these portable DACs – leads an unknowledgeable reader to assume is that buying this expensive gadget and simply inserting it in their normal setup will give them better sound.

It won’t.

Hummadruz advice: If you really care about your music sounding better, just listen to it off CDs, or make uncompressed digital versions. And, if you do happen to have a cool $400+ burning a hole in your pocket, invest in a decent set of headphones.

Noise Cancelling Shnozphones

Yesterday a friend sent me a link to this crowdfunder on Indiegogo, with the appended question: “This has to be ludicrous BS, right?”

The alleged ludicrous BS is a device called Silent Partner which claims to ‘quiet snoring noise’ (we’ll examine those exact words in a bit) through the mechanism of Active Noise Cancelling (or the popular acronym ANC).

You will be familiar with ANC if you’ve ever worn a pair of noise-cancelling headphones on a plane. Pop those suckers on, and the sound of the plane vanishes almost magically. You can actually hear the in-flight movie soundtrack.

The technology behind those headphones is really quite simple, and has been known for over half a century. In this post we’ll delve a little into how noise cancellation works, what it’s used for, and why Silent Partner is almost certainly BS. Not as ludicrous as it first appears perhaps, but let me just say that I’m not pitching in to the Indiegogo campaign any time soon.

The Acoustic Principle Behind Noise Cancellation

As you probably know, sound propagates through a medium via waves. Most people have seen graphic representations of soundwaves these days. They look something like this:

Screen Shot 2016-03-10 at 11.11.53 AM

That’s a fairly complex soundwave. The simplest manifestation of a sound is a sine wave. This one represents a pure tone, like you might hear if you strike a tuning fork:

sineposgraph

The red bar shows you the frequency (pitch) of the sound and the green bar marks out the amplitude (loudness). I’ve marked the highest and lowest amplitude with an arbitrary value to aid explanation. One thing to understand – and is easy to see in this simple sine wave – is that as a wave propagates, it changes its amplitude value across the zero axis; there is a time when the amplitude has a positive value, and a time when it has a negative value. This is called the phase of the wave, and this is true of all waves, not just sound waves. So in this case, the frequency of the sound stays exactly the same (a constant pitch), but the amplitude is wavering between positive and negative, as it does in all sound waves.

You can’t hear this constant amplitude change. You are only aware of the overall amplitude between the peak and the trough of the sound – this is the volume, or loudness, of the sound.

Somewhere, some time ago – no-one really knows when, but we can guess it was likely to around the beginning of electronic sound recording – someone discovered that it is possible to artificially ‘flip’ the phase of a recorded sound wave.*

sineneg2

Here’s the thing: this flipped sound wave will sound to your ear exactly the same as the one we depicted above. EXACTLY. If I played them to you one after the other, you would not be able to tell which one was which. However, if we artificially combine both these waves so that they are coherent – that is, they start at precisely the same time, and stay in step with one another – then the positive value of the first peak of the sine wave is completely cancelled out by the negative value of the first trough of its phase-reversed counterpart. It’s just simple mathematics: you add +1 to -1 and you get zero. The result is total silence. The positive ‘loud’ bit of one wave totally cancels the negative ‘loud’ bit of the other.

The first time this was demonstrated to me as a sound student, I was astonished. It seems like a weird kind of audio magic. Nevertheless, it’s just a property of wave mechanics, and we use this phase cancellation trick in numerous different ways in the pro audio business.

How Does Phase Cancellation Work in ANC Headphones?

Even though we’ve been looking at an example of a pure sine wave, phase cancellation works on any complex audio wave you care to submit to it. You take a recording of Kanye West, flip it out of phase and recombine it with the original and zap, perfect silence. An exemplary case of nature balancing itself for the better good.

The only condition is that the two waveforms must be completely in step with one another – coherent.

One day it occurred to someone that it might just be possible to accomplish this trick in real time, with live sound. This is how it would work in theory: you’d aim a 180º out-of-phase microphone at a sound and pump it through a speaker in the vicinity of the actual sound. The amplified phase-inverted sound would interact with the real sound and cancel it out. And indeed, it does work. Sort of. It’s very dependant upon where the listener is positioned in respect of both the phase-inverted source and the real sound. Too close to one or the other and the necessary coherence between the two sounds gets out of step. The effect completely vanishes. It works, then, as long as you tell your listener to sit exactly there, and don’t move your head even the tiniest bit. Not particularly satisfactory for most practical purposes.**

If only you could stick the inverted phase sound right at the listener’s ear drum, where it would arrive at precisely the same time as the real life sound… and of course, you can do almost exactly that, providing that the listener is wearing headphones.

So ANC headphones have a little microphone on each earphone, which captures almost the identical sound that is heading toward your eardrums. That sound is then amplified to the exact same amplitude as the original, and inverted in phase. It arrives at your eardrum at the same time as the real sound, effectively cancelling it out. It’s a very cool trick, but it’s highly reliant on the microphone and the speaker diaphragm being very close together, and both those things being as close to your eardrum as is technically – and biologically – feasible.

That All Sounds Plausible! What’s the Problem with Silent Partner?

This is where things get a little more complex than they have been so far, but you already know most of what you need to know to follow me.

I’m speculating that this is how Silent Partner is intended to work: the sound of the sleeper’s snoring is picked up by some microphones – I assume this is what is designated as the sensor in the rather lite ‘technical specifications’. The captured audio is then phase-inverted, amplified and played back through the speakers and ‘resonance chamber’, where it presumably combines with the sound of the actual snoring with the intention of cancelling it out.

You can see one big problem already: as I’ve mentioned above, the most effective sound cancelling happens if the coherent waveforms arrive as close to the listener’s ear as is achievable. In this case, we have something of a distance between the snoring source and the beleaguered sleeping partner – plenty of distance for the waveforms to dis-cohere, and also plenty of distance for another wave-related phenomenon to come into play. I’m talking here about polarisation. Without getting too technical about it, waves are not just two-dimensional like the representations in the graphs above. They are fully 3D, and so for exact noise cancellation to happen effectively, the waves and their anti-phase cohorts must be fully coherent in those three dimensions. This is really hard to achieve in a real-world environment, even with precise, point-source sound. It’s especially hard to achieve when you consider the nature of snoring, which doesn’t actually come from just the nose, as anyone who’s slept with a snorer knows. So, even in the best possible technical case, with the Silent Partner reproducing the snoring sound in every tiny detail of frequency and amplitude, it’s not going to be aligned in proper polarity and coherence with the sounds coming from the nose, throat and chest cavity of the snorer. It just can’t be.

The first clue we have that the makers of Silent Partner are either unaware of this issue (odd, since they supposedly trialled a proof of concept in May 2015), or worse, are being disingenuous about it, is in the video clip. It pertains to their demonstration of the ‘Silent Zone’ around the snorer. In the clip you see a ‘scientist’ holding a decibel meter close to the nose of the snoring person, and showing how the sound level drops as you get further away. Well, yes, this is exactly what you’d expect with normal snoring – sound falls off with distance according to the well known properties of the Inverse Square Law. But this is not what you’d expect to see if the Silent Partner was working as claimed. What you’d actually observe is no change in the sound level. The noise-cancellation effects should be in play – and in fact optimal – right at the source of the snoring. The sound level test in the video is showing us nothing at all but what you’d expect to see with natural snoring.

In fact, the whole meter thing is quite amusing if you know anything about sound. If the meter is measuring decibels (and I’ve no reason to think that it’s measuring anything else – that’s what sound level meters usually use) it’s showing that the snoring volume is dropping from about 84dB to 60dB. To give you a sense of that in terms that might be more familiar, that’s about the level of noise in a moderate factory or a busy road, down to the level of a normal conversation. I’d expect average snoring to have less effect on a dB meter! It’s certainly not an endorsement of a Silent Partner working as claimed.

And all this assumes, as I said, a best-possible case: that the Silent Partner is exactly reproducing the snoring sound. I’m skeptical that it could do even that. Snoring is made up of highly complex human sounds, and is not just one rhythm or frequency. And, as I’ve also pointed out, it doesn’t just come from the nose and mouth, so the entire upper body can contribute to the frequency characteristics. I would be very surprised if tiny components such as those in the Silent Partner – even with resonance chambers – could deliver an acceptable frequency response to enable the kind of phase and frequency matching required for this technique to work.

Aside from all the sound stuff, something just feels really fishy about this whole thing. First of all, the snoring-relief market is chock full of pseudoscience, which indicates an area of high subjectivity and therefore exploitable credulity. You can get anti-snoring pills, anti-snoring rings, anti-snoring pillows, anti-snoring homeopathy, anti-snoring acupuncture and so on and so on, none of them based on even the most delicate whiff of science. So it’s a field rich for the pickings, as they say.

Furthermore, Silent Partner deploys a technique beloved of purveyors of said pseudoscience: it piggybacks on something that to the layperson sounds credible and possible, but brushes a lot of actual dirt under the Carpet of Mystery: “It’s like magic!” boasts the hyperbole – a claim which is actually probably quite true, because it would be magic if it worked, since it defies the laws of physics. Like many pseudoscientific gadgets and gew-gaws, it fails to provide any real science to substantiate its claims, just a lot of hints at how it might work based on other things that do work. ***

There are many other red flags:

• The Silent Partner website is full of exhortations to Order Now! I don’t know about you, but for me this may as well say Give Us Your Money Quick, Before The Truthful Reviews Start Rolling In! Although the Indiegogo timeline includes a proof-of-concept as of May 2015, there is no indication that this showed any kind of convincing result. If it was my product, I’d really want to demonstrate that the thing worked. Not that it seems to matter, evidently, since the campaign is already way over-funded.

•There is a vagueness about the whole affair that is offputting. As we saw at the outset, the gadget claims to ‘quiet’ snoring – but that’s a very subjective thing. Nowhere do we find any definitive terms about how much it will quiet the snoring. The one piece of solid empirical data comes from the decibel meter in the videop clip, and I can tell you, that’s not showing any ‘quieting’.****

•The ‘team members’ for the campaign include far too many marketing and advertising people for my liking. Because that’s what the whole thing smacks mostly of – marketing.

•There are some uncomfortable legal problems. The Indiegogo campaign for Silent Partner holds a disclaimer that says

“Participation in this campaign is in accordance with the Terms and Conditions listed on the Silent Partner website.”

As of this writing, there are no Terms and Conditions listed on the Silent Partner website. There is a link there, alright, or at least words saying ‘Terms and Conditions’, but clicking on them does nothing. I could not find any such terms elsewhere on the very spare site. I think you can see that this is a legal disaster. People who have contributed to the Indiegogo campaign have agreed to do so under non-existent terms. Or terms that don’t exist yet. The makers of Silent Partner could, at any time, write a contract that simply says “I agree that the product might not work as stated and I understand that I will not get my money back under any circumstances”. And then make the link active.*****

In this legal respect, I also feel that Silent Partner might be wandering into the dubious area of being a medical device. This is a highly-controlled and legally rigid field. I’m sure they will vehemently deny it is such a device, but snoring can be a sign of underlying medical problems, and it’s an issue that you should take up with your doctor if it’s a significant detriment to your sleep [to be fair, the FAQ on the Indiegogo campaign site does indicate that you should consult your doctor if you have sleep apnea, but sleep apnea is only one of quite a few serious snoring-related problems].

To Wrap Up

My professional audio experience and technical knowledge tells me that Silent Partner is quite unlikely to show results in the manner claimed. Indiegogo provides little redress for failed campaigns, and especially for investors getting their money back. This, and the fact that there are no Terms and Conditions listed anywhere on the Indiegogo page or on the Silent Partner official site should make someone think twice before spending their money on this product.

But hey, you did learn a thing or two about noise cancellation and acoustic science, right, so your time here has not been entirely without benefit…


Footnotes:

*It is possible to hear naturally-occurring phase related phenomena. For this to happen, a sound needs to be combined with a copy of itself in such a way that it has some semblance of coherence and phase alignment. The most common manifestation of this is with reverberation or echo. You may have experienced this as a kind of ‘dead’ spot with your tv sound, perhaps; when you sit in a particular spot in the room, the sound seems to be muted and quiet, compared to most other places in the room. This is because the phase-changed reflections off the wall are combining with the actual tv sound to effect a phase-cancellation situation. It will never be as perfect as an electronically contrived version, but it can be quite profound given the right circumstances.

**Car manufacturers in concert with electronics firms like Harman and Siemens – have been playing with ANC for a fair few years now. Because the concern here is mostly with inhibiting road rumble, it’s actually not out of the question that it can work; longer, lower waveforms are less directional for the human ear, and so the necessity for the listener to be in a ‘sweet spot’ is not nearly so critical. Nevertheless, the technical requirements are still complex, and it hasn’t so far caught on in a big way.

***It also uses technical waffle: “subwavelength active noise cancellation” is an entirely meaningless term. Sub what wavelength? The clip with the decibel meter is technical waffle too, which as we’ve seen means precisely nothing.

****An expert audio colleague of mine points out that the sound meter display in the video clip is actually an added visual effect. It’s hard to know what to make of this – the inference is of course that the creators of Silent Partner consciously chose the numbers that are being displayed – numbers that are, as we discussed previously, really only indicative of rather loud normal snoring. We could speculate that this a a kind of ‘cover your ass’ move, inasmuch as they can always point to it and say “This is all we promised it would do…”

*****There are a few non-active links on the site. It opens up the possibility of jiggery-pokery. In the past I’ve seen this problem and commented on it and then, mysteriously, the links work – and the content under them is as outrageous as you expect. I’m not saying the Silent Partner people are doing this, just that it does happen with rather alarming frequency with these kinds of products.

Brainless

Over the last few months I’ve had numerous articles pop up in my Facebook news feed of the kind that promise to reveal some new ‘scientific’ discovery or other that will just amaze the socks off me. One of the favourites – going by the number of times I’ve seen it shared – is this one:

“According to Scientists, This is The Most Relaxing Tune Ever Recorded”

The one page sound-bite rich story is widely dispersed over numerous ‘health and wellbeing’ type websites (like this one), where it is for the most part uncritically accepted as a proper piece of news. It outlines the results of ‘a study’ that has honed in on the single most relaxing piece of recorded music ever to have graced human ears. I know – quite a bold claim – but it’s science, my friends, so you couldn’t just pull that kind of thing out of your ass, right?

The ‘tune’ in question turns out to be a piece called Weightless by ambient music trio Marconi Union. You should probably listen to a little bit of it before we go on – I hope it won’t relax you so much that you can’t come back after the break.

Well. Cute idea for a video, but in my considerable experience of the genre, that’s fairly generic electronic ambience.

According to the ‘news’ article:

This eight minute song is a beautiful combination of arranged harmonies, rhythms and bass lines and thus helps to slow the heart rate, reduce blood pressure and lower levels of the stress…

…and

The results showed that the song Weightless was 11 per cent more relaxing than any other song and even caused drowsiness among women in the lab.

The more you read, of course, the more you begin to see the divergence between the hyperbolic claims of the headline and the actual content of the piece. “11 percent more relaxing than any other song”? What does that even mean? 11 percent more relaxing? Calibrated how? Any other song ever written? Any other song of the same genre? Or just any other song on the iPod of one of the ‘women in the lab’ (is it just me, or is the implication here that the men in the lab were far too macho to be influenced by the wafty charms of the New Age ditty?).

Oh, here we go:

this song induced the greatest relaxation, higher than any other music tested till date

Right. So that would be how many songs, exactly? Not all the tunes ‘ever recorded’ is my guess.

Having worked for many years writing music for advertising, I can easily spot a marketing campaign when I smell one, and this one veritably reeks of fish. But a marketing campaign for what, exactly? There’s no product mentioned in the article, and it doesn’t seem like a promotion for the band. But I guess that’s possible. Let’s see what the internet has to say about Marconi Union.

OK, not much to be gleaned out of the obviously self-penned Wikipedia entry, other than that Marconi Union uses the flimsiest of pretexts to contrive to have their name linked with that of ambient music guru Brian Eno (in several different ways).

What about the ‘scientists’ involved in this astounding breakthrough? The experiment (we’ll call it that for expediency’s sake) was run by an entity by the name of Mindlab International who describe themselves as  a ‘neuro’ marketing company. Their website is slick and snappy.

But here’s one thing I’ll tell you about marketing – it’s not science. The sole goal of any marketing company on the planet is to gather enough data to convincingly support exactly what their client already believes to be true, extracting a generous fee in the process. Not convinced? Consider this: the marketing company is hired by the product maker. The product maker already thinks their product is the best thing since sliced bread. The marketing company who tells their client otherwise is therefore wrong, and gets fired. Marketing companies are the definition of the messenger who really doesn’t want to be shot. So, being a successful marketing company is all about finding convincing ways to make the message appealing to the client. If you can also convince them that you had a hand in increasing sales, that’s a bonus, but don’t think for even a second that that’s their raison d’être (notwithstanding the fact that many of them apparently believe that it is).

In case it needs to be said, none of this is the job of science. Science is about determining truth, no matter what the consequences to human sensibilities or dog food sales. Good science is out of a job when it comes to the advertising business.

The fact that this story involves a marketing company and a bunch of exaggerated claims  immediately raises red flags. It’s quite obviously not concerned with giving the reader factual news. No,  it’s solely about selling something. The more observant among you will have noticed that the video of Marconi Union’s Weightless – linked in the article (and above) – is interestingly named. It has the peculiar bracketed codicil ‘Radox’ in the title.*

Ah, yes. It’s all starting to make sense. So factoring ‘Radox’ into a search with ‘Marconi Union’ and ‘Mindlab International’ gets us straight to the nitty gritty. The first sentence on this page at a site called musicactivation.com reads:

Radox Spa brand has made an ambient track that is scientifically proven to be more relaxing than a massage.

Oh, now what a coincidence! The ambient track Weightless, which was made by (I think we can assume ‘commissioned by’) Radox Spa bath salts just turns out to be ‘the most relaxing tune ever recorded’.

Are you smelling any science here, sports fans? Or are you getting an overpowering aroma of horseshit? For the full experience, you might like to watch this:

Well, that was the biggest load of bollocks I’ve seen in a long while. I wonder how many completely unscientific instances of prestidigitation you caught there? If you needed proof that Mindlab International is entirely unconcerned with actual science, there’s plenty of ducking & weaving going in that clip.

What’s happened with this whole thing is that hundreds of websites have mindlessly snapped up a piece of marketing propaganda (something that was, no doubt, fed out to the media machine as a press release from Mindlab International) and completely credulously echoed it far and wide across the social networks as if it actually had meaning. I probably don’t need to rephrase it to reflect actuality, but for amusement’s sake, this is how that headline should really have read:

“According to a Marketing Company, a Piece of Music that their Bath Salts Client Commissioned is the Most Relaxing Tune Ever Recorded”  

Not something that’s going to rapidly circulate on the social media, is my guess.


*Update: since I penned this piece, Marconi Union seem to have disassociated themselves from Radox, so the original video I linked here has disappeared. References to Radox don’t appear on the re-uploaded version of Weightless